What Are Vitamins & Minerals?

What Are Vitamins & Minerals?

Vitamins and minerals are essential micronutrients that play crucial roles in various physiological functions within the human body. Here's an overview of each:


  1. Vitamin A (Retinol):

    • Function: Essential for vision, immune function, and skin health.
    • Sources: Carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, liver.
  2. Vitamin B Complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12):

    • Function: Involved in energy metabolism, red blood cell formation, and neurological functions.
    • Sources: Whole grains, meat, dairy, eggs, leafy greens.
  3. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid):

    • Function: Antioxidant, collagen synthesis, immune support.
    • Sources: Citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli.
  4. Vitamin D (Calciferol):

    • Function: Facilitates calcium absorption, supports bone health, and immune function.
    • Sources: Sunlight, fatty fish, fortified dairy products.
  5. Vitamin E (Tocopherol):

    • Function: Antioxidant, protects cells from damage.
    • Sources: Nuts, seeds, spinach, vegetable oils.
  6. Vitamin K (Phylloquinone):

    • Function: Blood clotting, bone metabolism.
    • Sources: Leafy greens, broccoli, Brussels sprouts.


  1. Calcium:

    • Function: Builds and maintains bones and teeth, supports muscle function.
    • Sources: Dairy products, leafy greens, fortified foods.
  2. Iron:

    • Function: Essential for oxygen transport in the blood (hemoglobin).
    • Sources: Red meat, beans, lentils, spinach.
  3. Magnesium:

    • Function: Supports muscle and nerve function, bone health.
    • Sources: Nuts, seeds, whole grains, leafy greens.
  4. Zinc:

    • Function: Involved in immune function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis.
    • Sources: Meat, dairy, nuts, whole grains.
  5. Potassium:

    • Function: Maintains fluid balance, supports nerve and muscle function.
    • Sources: Bananas, oranges, potatoes, spinach.
  6. Sodium:

    • Function: Regulates fluid balance, nerve impulses.
    • Sources: Table salt, processed foods.
  7. Phosphorus:

    • Function: Supports bone health, energy metabolism.
    • Sources: Dairy, meat, fish, nuts.
  8. Iodine:

    • Function: Essential for thyroid hormone production.
    • Sources: Seafood, iodized salt.


  1. Cellular Function:

    • Vitamins and minerals are integral for cellular processes, supporting growth, development, and overall cellular function.
  2. Disease Prevention:

    • They act as antioxidants, protecting cells from damage and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
  3. Bone Health:

    • Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D are crucial for bone formation and maintenance.
  4. Energy Metabolism:

    • B-complex vitamins play a key role in energy production by aiding in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  5. Immune Support:

    • Several vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, zinc, and selenium, play vital roles in supporting immune function.
  6. Blood Clotting and Oxygen Transport:

    • Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting, while iron is crucial for oxygen transport in the blood.

In essence, a balanced intake of vitamins and minerals is essential for maintaining optimal health and preventing deficiencies that can lead to various health issues.

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